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National GreenLight Contact Points
Austria – Belgium – Denmark – Finland – France – Germany – Greece – Italy – The Netherlands – Norway – Portugal – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom
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Austria Herbert Ritter
EVA, Energieverwertungsagentur
Linke Wienzeile 18
A-1060 Wien
Phone: +43 1 5861524-35
Fax: +43 1 5869488
E-mail: ritter@eva.ac.at
Web: www.eva.wsr.ac.at

Belgium Carl Maschietto
Ministère de la Région Wallonne – DGTRE
Ave. du Prince de Liège, 7
B-5100 Jambes (Namur)
Phone: +32 81 33 55 96 (- 06 secr.)
Fax: +32 81 30 66 00
E-mail: C.Maschietto@mrw.wallonie.be
Web: mrw.wallonie.be/dgtre

Denmark Sergio George Fox
ENS, Danish Energy Agency
Amaliegade 44
DK-1256 Copenhagen
Phone: +45 33 92 68 18
Fax: +45 33 91 55 81
E-mail: sgf@ens.dk
Web: www.ens.dk

Finland Heikki Härkönen
MOTIVA
P.O.Box 489
FIN-00101 Helsinki
Phone: +358 9 8565 3100
Fax: +358 9 8565 3199
E-mail: heikki.harkonen@motiva.fi
Web: www.motiva.fi

France Hervé Lefebvre
ADEME
500 route des Lucioles
F-06560 Valbonne
Phone: +33 (0)4 93 95 79 58
fax: +33 (0)4 93 65 31 96
E-mail: herve.lefebvre@ademe.fr
Web: www.ademe.fr

Germany Gillian Glaze
BEO
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH
D-52425 Juelich
Phone: +49-2461-61-5928
Fax: +49-2461-61-2880
E-mail: g.glaze@fz-juelich.de
Web: www.kfa-juelich.de/beo
Klaus Peter Kirsch and Nicola Saccà
SEA Saarländische Energie-Agentur GmbH
Altenkesselerstr. 17
D-66115 Saarbrücken
Phone: +49-681/ 9762-174
Fax: +49-681/ 9762-175
E-mail: kirsch@sea.izes.de and sacca@sea.izes.de
Web: www.sea-saarland.de

Greece Ilias Sofronis
CRES, Centre for Renewable Energy Sources
19th Km Marathon Ave.
GR-19009 Pikermi
Phone: +30-1-603.99.00
Fax: +30-1-603.99.04-05
E-mail: sofronis@cres.gr
Web: www.cres.gr

Italy Mario de Renzio
FIRE, Fed. It. per l’uso Razionale dell’Energia
Via Pompeo Neri 3
I-20146 Milano
Phone: +39 02 473553
Fax: +39 02 473553
E-mail: derenzio.firemi@iol.it
Web: www.fire-italia.it

The Netherlands Marco Kavelaars
NOVEM BV
Catharijnensingel 59 – PO Box 8242
3503 RE-NL Utrecht
Phone: +31 (0)30 – 2 393 644
Fax: +31 (0)30 – 2 322 386
E-mail: M.Kavelaars@novem.nl
Web: www.novem.org

Norway Ole-Gunnar Soegnen
NVE, Norwegian Water Resources & Energy Directorate
Valkendorfsgaten 9
N-5012 Bergen
Phone: +47 55214440
Fax: +47 55214401
E-mail: osoegnen@online.no
Web: www.enoknorge.no

Portugal Luís Silva
AGEN, Agência para a Energia
(ex CCE, Centro para a Conservação de Energia)
Estrada de Alfragide, Praceta 1
P-2720-537 Amadora
Phone: +351 214722800
Fax: +351 214722898
E-mail: lsilva@cce.pt

Spain Fernándo García Mozos
IDAE, Inst. para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía
Paseo de la Castellana, 95 – Planta 21
E-28046 Madrid
Phone: +34 91 4564900
Fax: +34 91 5551389
E-mail: fgmozos@idae.es
Web: www.idae.es

Sweden Lotta Bångens
STEM, Swedish National Energy Administration
P.O. Box 310
SE-631 04 Eskilstuna
Phone: +46-(0)8-747 86 98
Fax: +46-(0)8-747 86 98
E-mail: lotta.bangens@aton.se
Web: www.stem.se

United Kingdom Mike Perry
BRECSU
Garston
Watford WD2 7JR – UK
Phone: + 44 1923 664875
Fax: + 44 1923 664781
Email: perrym@bre.co.uk
Web: www.bre.co.uk

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contacts_national

National GreenLight Contact Points
Austria – Belgium – Denmark – Finland – France – Germany – Greece – Italy – The Netherlands – Norway – Portugal – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom
Back
Austria Herbert Ritter
EVA, Energieverwertungsagentur
Linke Wienzeile 18
A-1060 Wien
Phone: +43 1 5861524-35
Fax: +43 1 5869488
E-mail: ritter@eva.ac.at
Web: www.eva.wsr.ac.at

Belgium Carl Maschietto
Ministère de la Région Wallonne – DGTRE
Ave. du Prince de Liège, 7
B-5100 Jambes (Namur)
Phone: +32 81 33 55 96 (- 06 secr.)
Fax: +32 81 30 66 00
E-mail: C.Maschietto@mrw.wallonie.be
Web: mrw.wallonie.be/dgtre

Denmark Sergio George Fox
ENS, Danish Energy Agency
Amaliegade 44
DK-1256 Copenhagen
Phone: +45 33 92 68 18
Fax: +45 33 91 55 81
E-mail: sgf@ens.dk
Web: www.ens.dk

Finland Heikki Härkönen
MOTIVA
P.O.Box 489
FIN-00101 Helsinki
Phone: +358 9 8565 3100
Fax: +358 9 8565 3199
E-mail: heikki.harkonen@motiva.fi
Web: www.motiva.fi

France Hervé Lefebvre
ADEME
500 route des Lucioles
F-06560 Valbonne
Phone: +33 (0)4 93 95 79 58
fax: +33 (0)4 93 65 31 96
E-mail: herve.lefebvre@ademe.fr
Web: www.ademe.fr

Germany Gillian Glaze
BEO
Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH
D-52425 Juelich
Phone: +49-2461-61-5928
Fax: +49-2461-61-2880
E-mail: g.glaze@fz-juelich.de
Web: www.kfa-juelich.de/beo
Klaus Peter Kirsch and Nicola Saccà
SEA Saarländische Energie-Agentur GmbH
Altenkesselerstr. 17
D-66115 Saarbrücken
Phone: +49-681/ 9762-174
Fax: +49-681/ 9762-175
E-mail: kirsch@sea.izes.de and sacca@sea.izes.de
Web: www.sea-saarland.de

Greece Ilias Sofronis
CRES, Centre for Renewable Energy Sources
19th Km Marathon Ave.
GR-19009 Pikermi
Phone: +30-1-603.99.00
Fax: +30-1-603.99.04-05
E-mail: sofronis@cres.gr
Web: www.cres.gr

Italy Mario de Renzio
FIRE, Fed. It. per l’uso Razionale dell’Energia
Via Pompeo Neri 3
I-20146 Milano
Phone: +39 02 473553
Fax: +39 02 473553
E-mail: derenzio.firemi@iol.it
Web: www.fire-italia.it

The Netherlands Marco Kavelaars
NOVEM BV
Catharijnensingel 59 – PO Box 8242
3503 RE-NL Utrecht
Phone: +31 (0)30 – 2 393 644
Fax: +31 (0)30 – 2 322 386
E-mail: M.Kavelaars@novem.nl
Web: www.novem.org

Norway Ole-Gunnar Soegnen
NVE, Norwegian Water Resources & Energy Directorate
Valkendorfsgaten 9
N-5012 Bergen
Phone: +47 55214440
Fax: +47 55214401
E-mail: osoegnen@online.no
Web: www.enoknorge.no

Portugal Luís Silva
AGEN, Agência para a Energia
(ex CCE, Centro para a Conservação de Energia)
Estrada de Alfragide, Praceta 1
P-2720-537 Amadora
Phone: +351 214722800
Fax: +351 214722898
E-mail: lsilva@cce.pt

Spain Fernándo García Mozos
IDAE, Inst. para la Diversificación y Ahorro de la Energía
Paseo de la Castellana, 95 – Planta 21
E-28046 Madrid
Phone: +34 91 4564900
Fax: +34 91 5551389
E-mail: fgmozos@idae.es
Web: www.idae.es

Sweden Lotta Bångens
STEM, Swedish National Energy Administration
P.O. Box 310
SE-631 04 Eskilstuna
Phone: +46-(0)8-747 86 98
Fax: +46-(0)8-747 86 98
E-mail: lotta.bangens@aton.se
Web: www.stem.se

United Kingdom Mike Perry
BRECSU
Garston
Watford WD2 7JR – UK
Phone: + 44 1923 664875
Fax: + 44 1923 664781
Email: perrym@bre.co.uk
Web: www.bre.co.uk

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verify_d

Partners

Verifying the energy savings
Options overview – Option A – Option B – Option C – Option D
Option D

Option D is intended for energy conservation retrofits where calibrated simulations of the baseline energy use and/or calibrated simulations of the post-installation energy consumption are used to measure savings from the energy conservation retrofit. Option D can involve measurements of energy use both before and after the retrofit for specific equipment or energy end use as needed to calibrate the simulation program.

To measure electricity savings and thermal take-back from lighting/controls projects: i) create a baseline simulation model of the building, ii) calibrate the baseline model to either monthly data supplemented with snap-shop measurements or hourly data for the whole-building, iii) retrofit the building, iv) make changes to the input file that accurately reflect the retrofit, v) create a calibrated post-installation simulation model, and vi) measure the savings by comparing the calibrated baseline model to the calibrated post-installation simulation model.

Calculating Electricity Savings. These savings are calculated by analyzing the difference between the calibrated baseline and post-installation simulation. Care should be taken to adequately capture the correct number of day-type profiles which accurately represent baseline electricity use during weekday, weekend and holiday periods and to verify that these daytypes have been input properly into the simulation program. Annual savings projections are then calculated by comparing the baseline simulation to the post-installation simulation. Savings are significant if the difference between the model-predicted baseline and post-installation energy use is greater than model error as determined by the RMSE.

Calculating Peak Electric Demand Reductions. Electric demand reductions can also be analyzed provided representative baseline and post-installation measurements have been taken and used to calibrate the simulation programs. Both the owner and contractor/ESCO should understand that this analysis provides an hourly demand savings estimate which may not represent actual demand savings from the lighting project, especially if 15-minute or less than hourly demand intervals are in effect.

Calculating Interactive Heating/Cooling Savings. Interactive heating/cooling savings estimates can be calculated by the calibrated simulation program providing other changes are not made to the baseline and post-installation simulation programs. The owner and contractor/ESCO should agree in advance which type of weather file will be used to perform comparative calculations. Measured weather data corresponding to the post-installation period will yield the most accurate results. In cases where this data is not available, average-year weather data may be used.

Limitations Of Calculating Retrofit Savings From Lighting Efficiency and/or Controls Projects Using Option D. These calculations can be adversely affected by the following factors:

Demand savings may not match buildings where actual demand intervals of less than 60 minutes are used.
Simulated savings using Option D may not match actual savings because the simulations use average operation profiles and specified equipment performance parameters. If operating profiles change or equipment performance changes, simulation programs will need to be modified to reflect these changes.
Savings estimates may vary if there is a significant number of lamp outages or if the actual operating schedule varies significantly from the stipulated operating schedule.
Thermal savings predicted by Option D are only as good as the simulation program’s representation of the actual building envelope and HVAC systems.
Thermal savings are limited to how well the lights-to-space assumptions match actual building configuration.

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verify_c

Verifying the energy savings
Options overview – Option A – Option B – Option C – Option D
Option C

Option C determines savings by studying overall energy use in a facility and identifying the effects of lighting projects from changes in overall energy use patterns. Option C methods are required when measuring interactions between energy systems (e.g. lighting/cooling) is desired, and when determining the impact of projects that cannot be measured directly. Option C usually involves a continuous measurement of whole-facility baseline energy use and electric demand, and a continuous measurement of the whole-facility energy use and demand post-installation. Energy consumption under Option C is calculated by developing statistically representative models of whole-facility energy consumption, or electric demand (i.e., kW).

Refer to the full protocol for more details on the modelling approach to be adopted in this case.

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verify_b

Verifying the energy savings
Options overview – Option A – Option B – Option C – Option D
Option B

The primary difference between Options A and B is that Option A uses one-time baseline and post-installation “snap-shot” capacity, power measurements, or stipulated energy use, whereas Option B involves portable monitoring equipment installed in a facility for a period deemed sufficient to characterize lighting system performance during all operational periods, i.e., weekday, weekend, etc. Post-installation, the measurements are repeated to develop similar 24-hour profiles of lighting system energy consumption. Continuous post-installation measurements can also be taken.

Electricity savings due to reduced lighting energy consumption are calculated by analyzing the difference between measured 24-hour consumption profiles for the baseline and post-installation periods, and then projecting these savings to an annual calculated savings. Care should be taken to adequately capture the correct number of day-type profiles to accurately represent the facility’s baseline electricity use during weekday, weekend and holiday periods. In some cases, additional profiles may be needed to capture lighting energy use during secondary schedules. For example, educational facility loads often vary between school year and summer vacation periods. In some instances baseline, weekday/weekend profile measurements may be necessary during both of these times. Electric demand reductions can also be analyzed provided representative baseline and post-installation demand measurements have been taken. Post-installation measurements can either be taken continuously throughout the payback period or for a representative sample period. Savings can be projected with the appropriate statistical method.

Measurement accuracy is completely dependent on how well representative profiles match actual baseline and/or post-installation lighting profiles in the facility. Additionally, savings resulting from lighting efficiency and/or lighting controls projects that are calculated using Option B can be adversely affected by the same four factors which affect lighting projects evaluated with Option A

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verify_a

Verifying the energy savings
Options overview – Option A – Option B – Option C – Option D
Option A

Option A is intended for retrofits where operating hours are known in advance, stipulated or agreed upon, and where end use capacity, demand or power level (kW) can be assessed by either:

One-Time, In-Situ End-Use Measurement Method. One-time, in-situ end-use measurements are measurements taken at the site using calibrated instrumentation. For electrical loads, this type of measurement usually requires isolating the device to be measured and measuring the electrical power (RMS Wattage) that the device draws on all phases.

Representative Sample Measurement Method. Representative sample measurements are measurements taken with calibrated instrumentation on a representative sample of equipment being installed. Representative sample measurements are appropriate for energy consuming equipment that does not vary significantly in load and must be taken on similar equipment model types. Estimates using representative sample measurements and stipulated consumption may be adversely affected by inaccurate one-time, in-situ measurements if proper care is not exercised.

Representative Manufacturer’s Measurement Method. Representative manufacturer’s measurements are measurements published by the manufacturer of the equipment. In order for such measurements to be valid, they should be taken with calibrated instruments on a representative sample of equipment being installed. Estimates using manufacturer’s sample measurements and stipulated consumption may be adversely affected by the same factors as one-time, in-situ measurements.

Representative Baseline Power Level Profile Method. Representative baseline power level profiles are either hourly or 15-minute measurements taken at the site usually at the whole-facility level or sub-panel level using portable monitoring equipment. These measurements represent an aggregate end-use load, e.g., all lighting loads in a facility. Representative baseline power level profiles capture the in-situ 24-hour profiles of a group of equipment operating during weekday or weekend modes. Such measurements are appropriate for non-weather-dependent energy consuming equipment loads that vary within a 24-hour period, but do not vary daily by more than plus or minus ten percent (±10%). Example: weekday/weekend whole-facility lighting. In general, representative baseline power level profiles can be used to measure weather-independent loads. Representative baseline power level profiles for weather-dependent loads should include measurements taken over a long enough period to adequately characterize the schedule (i.e., weekday/weekend and weather-dependent characteristics of the end use load).
Energy savings are stipulating by multiplying the difference between baseline and post-installation measurements by the stipulated hours-of-use or hourly profiles.
However, these can be adversely affected by the following factors. Savings stipulations:

may vary if there are equipment changes during the retrofit that affect equipment operating efficiency.
may vary if operating settings that affect facility system performance are changed after measurements are taken.
may vary if there is a significant number of lamp outages, or if the actual operating schedule varies significantly from the stipulated operating schedule.
do not measure cooling interaction or increases in heating load due to reductions in internal heating caused by improved lighting system efficiency.
may vary when manufacturer’s wattage is used if in-situ lamp-ballast-fixture temperature is significantly different than standard conditions that manufacturer’s use for published fixture wattage.

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disclaimer

Disclaimer
The European Commission maintains this server to enhance public access to information about the GreenLight Programme. Our goal is to keep this information timely and accurate. If errors are brought to our attention, we will try to correct them.

However the European Commission or any person acting on their behalf accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the material on this site. This material is:

information of a general nature only which is not intended to address the specific circumstances of any particular individual or entity;
not necessarily comprehensive, complete, accurate or up to date;
sometimes linked to external sites over which the Commission services have no control and for which the Commission assumes no responsibility;
not professional or legal advice (if you need specific advice, you should always consult a suitably qualified professional).
The views expressed in this site do not necessarily reflect the views of the Commission.

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list_incentives

List of Financial Incentives
Helps related to money that incites or has a tendency to incite to adopt lighting energy-efficient technologies or practices.
List revised 17 Oct. 2000. Disclaimer .
Austria – Belgium – Denmark – Finland – France – Germany – Greece – Italy – The Netherlands – Norway – Portugal – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom

Austria

No particular financial incentive referenced to date by the National GreenLight Contact Point

Belgium

aid in the public sector:

for local government buildings (AGEBA program)
for schools and hospitals (ECHOP program)
for sports infrastructure
for public lighting (EPEE)
distributors’ subsidies
aid for businesses:
grant for preliminary study costs
consultancy bonus
tax deduction for energy saving investment
bonuses granted by electricity distributors
aid for staff recruitment: decree 123 PME
subsidy to professional federations
grant for technical approval
grant for basic industrial research
recoverable advance for applied research, development and demonstration
For more information on these aids, please contact your GreenLight Contact Point

Denmark

List being prepared by the National GreenLight Contact Point

Finland

No incentive for energy-efficient lighting only. Other national incentives containing all areas of energy use: governmental, energy audit support, subsidies for energy-efficiency investments etc. See with your National GreenLight Contact Point

France

Grants for demonstration and exemplary operations.

Demonstration operations consist of the first full-scale implementation of innovative efficient techniques or processes coming from the research & Development sector or moved to a new sector. Rate of support: typical 30%, max. 40%.
Exemplary operations deal with energy-efficient technologies that have already been tested (e.g. through demonstration projects) but need to be disseminated at a much wider scale. The objective of exemplary operations is to rapidly create national and regional references. Rate of support: typical 20%, max. 30%.

Contact:
Hervé Lefebvre
ADEME
500 route des Lucioles
F-06560 Valbonne
Phone: +33 (0)4 93 95 79 58
fax: +33 (0)4 93 65 31 96
E-mail: herve.lefebvre@ademe.fr
Web: www.ademe.fr

Germany

No particular financial incentive referenced to date by the National GreenLight Contact Point

Greece

List being prepared by the National GreenLight Contact Point

Italy

No particular financial incentive referenced to date by the National GreenLight Contact Point

The Netherlands

List being prepared by the National GreenLight Contact Point

Norway

No particular financial incentive referenced to date by the National GreenLight Contact Point

Portugal

List being prepared by the National GreenLight Contact Point

Spain

See www.idae.es

Sweden

No particular financial incentive referenced by the National GreenLight Contact Point

United Kingdom

The Energy Saving Trust is a leading organisation in the promotion of the efficient use of energy in the UK. It is an independent and non-profit distributing organisation which runs a variety of energy efficiency schemes.

Other UK-side initiatives that offer support to potential partners are the Design Advisory Service and Site Specific Advice, both run out of BRECSU at the BRE.

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funding

Economics
The GreenLight Programme encourages its Partners to tap a large reservoir of profitable investments without the need for specific financial incentives from the Commission. The GreenLight investments use proven technology, products and services which can reduce lighting energy use 30% to 50%, earning rates of return between 20% and 50%.

How to calculate profitability ?
Download Excel calculation spreadsheet (soon)
Financing options you can choose from
List of European Energy Service Companies
Existing financial incentives in Member States
Additional references

How to calculate profitability ?
(with extracts from the EC Joule-Thermie Maxibrochures on energy-efficient lighting)
Improvements in energy efficiency generally have an initial cost which then leads to reduced future energy costs. An existing lighting installation may be providing suitable lighting early in the morning, but remain switched on when daylight provides adequat lighting in the space later in the day. The installation of an automatic control system to turn off the lighting will entail the expenditure of an initial sum of money, but future running costs will be reduced. Is this future saving sufficient to justify the initial expenditure? In order to decide this question, first of all the costs involved must be added together, and then the benefits, in the form of energy savings, evaluated. An assessment of the cost effectiveness of the proposed system can be made in a number of ways.

Costs: They fall into two categories: initial costs and running costs. Initial costs are those incurred in getting the scheme installed and running. They include equipment costs: lamps and luminaires, controls and cables; installation costs: wiring and builders’ work; and commissioning: checking and adjusting controls, testing circuits and measuring illuminances. Running costs often exceed the initial purchase cost of the installation within a short time. They include the energy costs, cleaning, replacement of lamps at the end of their economic life and replacement of any other failed components, e.g. ballasts, prismatic panels, etc.

Benefits: These are usually in the form of reductions in energy costs and in some cases reductions in maintenance and lamp replacement costs. Reduction in the energy used for lighting, and hence heat released into the room, can also reduce the air conditioning load, producing savings in the energy used for air-conditioning and leading to smaller plant requirements. Improvements in lighting can also yield other benefits, such as improved productivity, but these are more difficult to quantify.

Simple payback

This is the simplest method of appraisal. It is usually used where a new proposal is being compared with an existing scheme. If the initial expenditure for the new scheme is x and the annual cost saving is y, then the payback period is x/y years.

Example: consider the replacement of a 60 watt tungsten lamp with an 11 watt compact fluorescent lamp in a room used for 2000 hours per year. The cost of a tungsten lamp is 0.7 Euro, the cost of a compact fluorescent lamp is 19 Euro, electricity costs 0.08 Euro per KWh. The life of a tungsten lamp is 1000 hours, the life of a compact fluorescent lamp is 8000 hours. The tungsten lamp uses 120 kWh per year at an annual cost of 9.6 Euro, the compact fluorescent lamp uses 22 kWh per year at an annual cost of 1.8 Euro. The fluorescent lamp has an initial capital cost 19 Euro, but there are no further capital costs for this system. Two tungsten lamps are required each year at a capital cost of 1.4 Euro. Energy costs per year are 9.6 Euro for the tungsten lamp and 1.8 Euro for the fluorescent lamp. The cost savings using fluorescent lamp are 7.8 Euro for energy and 1.4 Euro for filament lamps that otherwise would have to be bought, a total of 9.2 Euro per year. The simple paybck time of the investment (19/9.2) is therefore just over two years.
However, simple payback is not a good indicator of profitability because it does not consider returns beyond the payback period and ignores the time value of money. Therefore, the GreenLight Partners are advised to choose between two other more powerful indicators: the Net Present Value and the Internal Rate of Return.

Net Present Value

An improvement to the simple payback assessment is to consider the discounted value of the annual savings. Money today is worth more than the same amount of money in the future because it can be invested today to earn interest and produce a greater sum in the future. For example 100 Euro invested today at a real rate of return of 10% per annum will be worth 110 Euro in a year’s time; alternatively 110 Euro in a year’s time is worth 100 Euro today if discounted at 10%. It is possible to calculate what future savings are worth today by discounting them by the rate of return anticipated on an investment. This is a common financial appraisal technique. The discount factor for a single year is calculated from:

Where f = discount factor
R = discount rate (<1)
m = year considered
For example the factor for the third year at a rate of 10% would be:

The cumulative discount factor (c) over n years is given by:

The present value (PV) of annual savings is given by:

PV = annual savings x c

For example a saving of 50 Euro per year for 10 years discounted at 5% is worth today:

Euro

The net present value (NPV) of an investment is the present value of the income or savings less the initial cost of the investment (calculated over its lifetime, i.e. 15 years in GreenLight). A cost effective investment is one where the NPV is positive, ie the savings are worth more than the initial investment.

Internal Rate of Return

The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the interest rate that equates the present value of expected future cash flows to the initial cost of the project. Expressed as a percentage, IRR can be easily compared with loan rates to determine an investment’s profitability. The higher the IRR, the more cost-effective the investment.

The GreenLight commitment defines a profitable investment as one that provides an annualised IRR equivalent of at least 20% over a 15-year period.

Financing options you can choose from
(with extracts from the EC Guide to Energy Efficiency Bankable Proposals)
The basic financing methods for the energy-efficiency lighting upgrades fall into three categories:

Self-financing
Debt-financing
Third party-financing by Energy Service Companies (ESCOs)
Self-financing
The simplest and most important source of finance is shareholders’ equity, raised either by stock issues or retained earnings. Advantages: all cost savings realised from the upgrade are immediately available and the equipment depreciation becomes a tax deduction.

Debt-financing

The next most important source of finance is debt. Debtholders are entitled a fixed regular payment of interest and the final repayment of the principal. It is important to note that tax authorities treat interest payments as a cost. This means the company can deduct interest when calculating its taxable income. Interest is paid from pretax income. Dividends and retained earnings come from after-tax income.

Third party-financing by Energy Service Companies

The basic role of the Energy Service Company (ESCO) is to provide comprehensive energy efficiency services to consumers including project finance, engineering, project management, equipment maintenance monitoring and evaluation, usually through Energy Performance Contracts (EPC). ESCOs can package their services using a variety of finance schemes whereby they finance up-front capital improvements in the client’s premises in exchange for a portion (or the total, depending on the EPC) of the savings generated.

The ESCOs are in effect able to turn the cost savings from efficiency measures into a revenue stream which can be used to repay debt and provide a profit. That’s why performance contracts are sometimes referred as “paid from savings” contracts.

They may constitute the preferred financing option if your organisation wants to keep the upgrade project off its balance sheet. This type of contracting can be complex, but it is emerging in Europe.

See list of European Energy Service Companies (ESCO)

Additional references
ADEME: “Financer des travaux d’economie d’energie en hotellerie restauration”, ed.: ADEME, France, Contract Thermie B SME-0635-95-DE, 1997

Building Research Establishment: “Financial aspects of energy management in buildings – Good practice guide 165”, 1995
Shows those responsible for managing energy how to identify the most promising projects, how to locate investment funds and develop a sound financial case effectively with decision takers and finance specialists

European Commission Directorate General for Energy & Transport : “Guide to Energy Efficiency Bankable Proposals”. Jointly prepared by The European Commission THERMIE and SYNERGY Programmes and The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
To understand how to write a business plan with a focus on energy efficiency projects

European Commission Directorate General for Energy & Transport: “Shared energy saving and supply agreement for UK buildings”, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, ISBN 92-827-5874-5, 25 pp. 1996
Template for contract with Energy Service Companies (made for UK buildings but can serve as example in other countries)

International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives: “Profitting from energy efficiency! A financing handbook for municipalities”, ed.: Dan J. Goldberger and Philip Jessup, Sept. 1993
Describes a number of approaches to financing energy efficiency, with an emphasis on municipal building retrofit programmes

International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives: “Energy Smart Cities, Energy Efficiency Financing Directory”, Nov. 1995

World Energy Efficiency Association: “Manual on financing energy efficiency projects”, ed.: James B. Sullivan and Rolf R. Anderson, 1997

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l_otherlamps_micro

Microwave lamps
Microwave lamps are lamps in which the light is produced by radiation from sulphur excited by microwaves in the presence of argon gas.

Performance: They offer a high efficiency of approximately 100 lm/W. The sulphur output has a correlated colour temperature of 6500 K and a colour rendering index above 80. The lamp is mercury free, has unequalled colour stability, superior lumen maintenance, short turn-on time, low infrared radiation, very low ultra-violet radiation, and long system life.
Applications: Their high lumen output make them suitable for indirect lighting often using light distribution system such as hollow light guides. They are very new lamps with limited applications so far.
Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: –
6500 K
80
100 lm/W