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Light-Emitting Diodes (LED)
Semiconducting materials that emit light when a current flows through them.

Performance: In light-emitting diodes, electricity is converted directly to light. Their efficacy is increasing from year to year and one foresees that it exceeds 120 lm/W within the next decade. An other advantage of LEDs is their extremely long lifetime.
Applications: LEDs are used into traffic lights and exit signs, where they will last much longer and consume less energy than bulbs. Indoor luminaires for LED have also appeared very recently on the market.
Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:

Lifetime:




20 – 40 lm/W (amber and red-light LED)
10 – 20 lm/W (blue and green-light LED)
10 – 12 lm/W (white LED)
100.000 hours

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Low Pressure Sodium Lamps
They are discharge lamps in which the light is produced by radiation from sodium vapour.

Performance: The low pressure sodium lamp is the most efficient lamp available at present with efficacies up to 200 lm/W.
Applications: Because the radiation produced is monochromatic yellow, the use of this lamp is confined to locations which do not demand colour discrimination, typical applications would be road lighting.
Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 18 – 185 Watt
N/A
N/A
100 – 200 lm/W
12000 – 24000 hours

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“White” High Pressure Sodium Lamps
High pressure sodium lamp with whiter spectrum compared to standard high pressure sodium lamps.

Performance: The white sodium lamps are less efficient than the standard high pressure sodium lamps but offer lower wattages and improved colour properties.
Applications: Because of their improved colour properties, they can sometimes be used in the same applications as Metal Halide lamps, including retail lighting.
Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 35 – 100 Watt
2500 Kelvin
80
57 – 76 lm/W (typical: 65)
15000 hours

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Standard High Pressure Mercury Lamps
Unlike the blended version, the standard high pressure mercury lamp has no built-in incandescent filament.

Performance: With a low luminous efficacy, a low Colour Rendering Index and adverse effects on the environment (contains mercury), the high pressure mercury lamp has become obsolete.
Applications: Maintenance of old public lighting installations where the substitution with a more energy-efficient lamp is not possible.
Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 50 – 1000 Watt
3900 – 4300 Kelvin
33 – 50
32 – 60 lm/W
10000 – 24000 hours

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Metal Halide lamps (also called MBI)
They are high intensity discharge lamps in which the major portion of the light is produced from a mixture of a metallic vapour and the products of the dissociation of halides.

Performance: Compared to High Pressure Mercury lamps, Metal Halide lamps offer greater efficacies.
Compared to high pressure sodium (SON) lamps, Metal halide, MBI, lamps offer similar advantages, but have different characteristics. The efficacy of MBI lamps is comparable to that of SON lamps, and they are available over a wider range of power ratings, 50 to 2000 W. They have a cooler, whiter, colour appearance than SON lamps. They have better colour rendering properties than SON lamps, and will thus be used where high efficacy and good colour rendering properties are required. However, as MBI lamps age, they can be subject to changes in colour appearance. A disadvantage of MBI lamps, when compared to SON lamps, is that they have a shorter service life; this should be weighted against the advantages of better colour rendering.

Applications: Many of these high efficacy lamps are found in industrial installations. Indeed, metal halide lamps can be used in both high-bay and low-bay luminaires and thus find application in a diverse range of industrial building types. But they are also suitable for sports halls, swimming pools and gymnasia and also for outdoor lighting, including car parks.
Recently, the increasing popularity of freestanding and wall-mounted uplighters means that these lamps are now also being used in office installations, although it is advisable to check colour rendering characteristics of the lamps before fitting an entire installation. In general, only those with better colour rendering, sometimes designated “deluxe”, are suitable for office interiors. Some of these lamps may also be used for display applications. However, they have significant restrike times, making them unsuitable for use with some control systems.

Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 35 – 3500 Watt
2900 – 6000 Kelvin
60 – 93
65 – 120 lm/W (typical: 70)
3000 – 20000 hours

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Self-Ballasted Induction Lamps
They are self-contained induction lamps with integrated circuit.

Performance: Their efficacy is close to 50 lm/W, much higher than incandescent lamps, and similar to the least efficient fluorescent sources. However, with no electrode to consider, starting can be instantaneous and lamps can be switched any number of times without the degradation that always occurs when electrodes are present. In the case of self-ballasted lamps, the lifetime is approximately 10000 hours, much less than the fitting-based induction lamps, due to the difficulty to control the temperature of critical components in the ballast.
Applications: Because of their high rated life, these lamps are well suited for areas where access may be a problem. The self-ballasted lamp is intended as a high efficacy replacement for incandescent reflector lamps in the many applications for which a broad light distribution is either desirable or acceptable. Induction lamps can be available in similar shape to the incandescent lamps that they replace.
For new installation, the fitting-based version shall be preferred.

Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: –
3000 Kelvin
82
48 lm/W
10.000 hours

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Fitting-Based Induction Lamps
They are induction lamps requiring specific fitting.

Performance: The system has a good efficacy, up to 71 lm/W, and good colour rendering index (above 80). With no electrode to consider, starting can be instantaneous and lamps can be switched any number of times without the degradation that always occurs when electrodes are present. Rated lifetime is approximately 60000 hours, much more than the self-ballasted induction lamps.
Applications: The application areas were in outdoor lighting as well as in indoor lighting, where lamp replacement is very expensive or dangerous. However, because of new improvements (smaller size, price reduction) and their shape, the light is easier to control than in the case of linear fluorescent tube hence offering more freedom in the luminaire design, thus they can sometimes be preferred to the latter. Therefore, they are now found in more conventional applications, such as stores and libraries where low maintenance is a benefit.
Fitting-based induction lamps cannot be used as direct replacement of standard tungsten lamps. For direct replacement, see Self-ballasted induction lamps.

Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 100 – 150 Watt
2700 – 3000 – 4000 Kelvin
85
71 lm/W
60000 hours

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Dedicated Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Dedicated (or pin-based) lamps are compact fluorescent lamps with luminaire-mounted ballast and pin cap.

Performance: As a general rule, comparable total light output from a compact fluorescent scheme may be obtained for only around 20-30% of the wattage required using standard tungsten lamps. The rated life of the compact fluorescent lamps is 8 times longer than for tungsten lamps; maintenance costs are therefore reduced, although the initial cost of the lamps is higher.
With the introduction of new phosphors, the colour characteristics of compact fluorescent lamps have significantly improved and they can no longer be considered to deliver ‘crude’ lighting. Their rated colour temperature ranges from 2700 K (warm white similar to incandescent lighting) to 6000 K (cold white similar to daylight). In addition, the Colour Rendering Index of pin-based lamps can reach up to 98 (out of a 100).

The life of fluorescent lamp control gear is generally longer than the life of the lamp itself. In the case of pin-based lamps, the control gear and lamp are separate. Therefore, the control gear outlasts several successive lamps, and when one lamp fails another can be fitted straight into the old gear.

For what concerns their price, it has dramatically reduced in recent years and this trend is continuing.

Applications: For the reason mentioned above, new compact fluorescent installations should always use separate control gear. Compact fluorescent lamps have a wide range of applications. They can be used in many luminaires ranging from external bulkhead units, to downlights and decorative lighting. As compact fluorescent lamps become smaller, part of the continuing development by the manufacturers, these lamps are finding use also in display lighting applications such as wall washing for notice boards, etc. Where there is a need to keep indoor air temperatures low it should be remembered that compact fluorescent lamps run cooler than all forms of tungsten.
A wide range of luminaires designed specifically for compact fluorescent lamps with separate control gear is available; the extra available space usually allows the incorporation of power factor correction when these luminaires have electromagnetic ballasts. Power factor correction is normally close to parity when electronic high frequency ballasts are utilised. These dedicated fixtures have also the advantage of optimising the light distribution and of preventing the user from inadvertently switching back to incandescent lighting when changing the bulb.

Retrofit applications (see also self-ballasted compact fluorescent lamps): Adapters containing the control gear and which plug directly into an ordinary lamp socket are also available for some pin-based compact fluorescent lamps, allowing them to be used as direct replacements for standard tungsten lamps in existing luminaires. As with the plug-in CFLs, these adpators often have a low power factor and would not have the same life hours as a definitive set of control gear. They would generally only last for 5 or so lamp replacements.

Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 5 – 55 Watt
2700 – 6000 Kelvin
85 – 98
45 -87 lm/W (typical: 70 for triphosphor lamps)
10000 hours

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Integral Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Integral (or self-ballasted) lamps are compact fluorescent lamps with built-in ballast and appropriate screw or bayonet cap to fit a standard incandescent lamp-holder.

Performance: As a general rule, comparable total light output from a compact fluorescent scheme may be obtained for only around 20-30% of the wattage required using standard tungsten lamps. The rated life of the compact fluorescent lamps is 8 times longer than for tungsten lamps. Maintenance costs are therefore reduced, although the initial cost of the lamps is higher.
The colour characteristics of compact fluorescent lamps have significantly improved and they can no longer be considered to deliver ‘crude’ lighting. Their rated colour temperature ranges from 2700 K (warm white similar to incandescent lighting) to 4000 K (cool white).

Applications: The lamps with integral control gear are designed as direct replacements for many general service incandescent lamps. Their price has dramatically reduced in recent years, making the substitution even more profitable.
For new installations, the use of pin-based compact fluorescent lamps shall be preferred.

Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 3 – 23 Watt
2700 – 4000 Kelvin
85
30 – 65 lm/W
10000 hours

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16mm-Diameter Linear Fluorescent Lamps
(also called T5)
Introduced in 1995, they are the newest generation of linear fluorescent lamps with a diameter of 16 mm only.

Performance: These slimmer lamps are 7% more efficient than the 26 mm (T8) fluorescent lamps (efficacy of 89 lm/W for T8 lamps compare to 95 lm/W for T5 lamps).
In addition, T5 tubes can come with an optimised reflector that further improve the savings compared to a T8/reflector system.

Applications: Each new lamp will require a new socket, ballast and fixture. They should therefore be reserved for new installations.
Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 14 – 80 Watt
3000 – 6000 Kelvin
85
80 – 100 lm/W
8000 hours