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l_fluo_lin_26mm

26mm-Diameter Linear Fluorescent Lamps
(also called T8)
The most standard linear fluorescent lamps in Europe. Diameter of 26 mm.

Performance: The T8 is among the most efficient fluorescent source. In addition, their cost is now lower than the costs for T12 lamps.
T8 lamps are available with three different types of phosphor coatings:

Coating with halophosphate phosphors: The halophosphates have been used for many years, but have the disadvantage that good colour rendering can only be achieved at the expense of reduced efficacy. Colour rendering ranges from 50 to 75.
Coating with three-band phosphors (or triphosphors): these phosphors achieve both good colour rendering and high efficacy; however they are more expensive than the older halophosphates. Colour rendering ranges from 80 to 85.
Coating with multiband phosphors: very high colour rendering, but this has only been achieved with some reduction in efficacy compared with the triphosphor lamps. Colour rendering of 90 and above.

During the life of a fluorescent lamp, the phosphors age and the light output decreases. The two latter coatings age more slowly than the halophosphates; these lamps therefore have improved lumen maintenance.

The halophosphate type 26mm lamps produce approximately the same light output as the 38 mm diameter lamps of the same length and colour, but consume around 8% less energy. The Triphosphor type version not only consumes around 8% less energy but also produces approximately 10% more lumens and has a higher Colour Rendering Index. This latter version shall therefore be preferred.

Applications: The 26 mm diameter fluorescent tubes have replaced the 38 mm diameter tubes as the standard for new installations.
The T8 triphosphor lamps are suitable for applications where good colour rendering is required (e.g. offices).

The very high colour rendering multiband phosphor lamps are most suitable for lighting in galleries, museums, art shops, etc. and other applications where very high colour rendering is required.

Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:

Lifetime:

10 – 58 Watt
2700 – 6500 Kelvin
50 – 98
100 lm/W (triphosphor on electronic ballast)
97 lm/W (triphosphor on electromagnetic ballast)
77 lm/W (halophosphate on electromagnetic ballast)
8000 hours

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l_fluo_lin_38mm

38mm-Diameter Linear Fluorescent Lamps
(also called T12)
They are the linear fluorescent lamps with the largest diameter. They are the earliest fluorescent tubes designed. Most lamps of this type that are available now are made with halophosphate phosphors and argon as the gas filling.

Performance: They are the least efficient fluorescent sources.
Applications: They are no longer used in new installations where they have been replaced by 26 mm diameter lamps.
Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 20 – 140 Watt
3000 – 4100 Kelvin
60 – 85
45 – 100 lm/W (typical: 70 lm/W on electromagnetic gear)
8000 hours

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l_inc_halogen_low

Very-Low Voltage Halogen Lamps
Tungsten halogen incandescent lamps operating at very low voltage by means of a voltage transformer.

Performance: Being incandescent lamps, they have a much lower efficacy than any other families of lamps (e.g. fluorescent lamps, high intensity discharge lamps). However, thanks to the halogens, their efficacy can typically be up to 20% higher than standard tungsten lamps, and their luminous properties are more constant over time. Moreover, newest halogen lamps are also available with infra-red coating that is said to increase their luminous efficacy by 25-30% compared to conventional halogen lamps.
Compared to compact fluorescent lamps, their efficacy is much lower but on the other hand their performance is independent of temperature and orientation. They also project light efficiently over long distance, and they present no power quality or compatibility concerns. In addition, they provide optimal colour rendering.

In addition, their small, strong bulb with robust internal construction allows luminaires and optics to be miniaturised and made less expensive.

Applications: Accent lighting and display lighting has traditionnaly been achieved using tungsten spotlights. A wide range of tungsten-halogen lamps is now available and these can be used effectively for this purpose, especially where tight control of beam spread is necessary. Other good applications include high-ceiling downlighting and “instant-on” power floodlighting. They should be used sparingly in rooms with low ceilings. They are expensive and the concentrated filament is too dazzling to expose to the direct view of occupants.
Prior to using tungsten halogen lamps, the use of compact fluorescent lamps (better efficacy) should be investigated.

Because very-low voltage halogen lamps require a voltage transformer to operate, their use as direct substitution of standard tungsten lamps is not possible.

Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 5-150 Watt
3000 Kelvin
100
12 – 22 lm/W (typical: 18 lm/W)
2000 – 4000 hours

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l_inc_halogen_line

Line Voltage Halogen Lamps
Single-ended or double-ended tungsten halogen incandescent lamps operating directly on line-voltage with no need for voltage converter.

Performance: Being incandescent lamps, they have a much lower efficacy than any other families of lamps (e.g. fluorescent lamps, high intensity discharge lamps). However, thanks to the halogens, their efficacy can typically be up to 20% higher than standard tungsten lamps, and their luminous properties are more constant over time. Moreover, newest halogen lamps are also available with infra-red coating that is said to increase their luminous efficacy by 25-30% compared to conventional halogen lamps.
Compared to compact fluorescent lamps, their efficacy is much lower but on the other hand their performance is independent of temperature and orientation. They also project light efficiently over long distance, and they present no power quality or compatibility concerns. In addition, they provide optimal colour rendering.

Applications: Accent lighting and display lighting has traditionnaly been achieved using tungsten spotlights. A wide range of tungsten-halogen lamps is now available and these can be used effectively for this purpose, especially where tight control of beam spread is necessary. Other good applications include high-ceiling downlighting and “instant-on” power floodlighting.
Some of these lamps are specially designed for retrofit of standard tungsten lamps.

However, prior to using tungsten halogen lamps, the use of compact fluorescent lamps (better efficacy) should be investigated.

Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:

Lifetime:

25-250 Watt (single-ended)
60-2000 Watt (double-ended)
3000 Kelvin
100
11-17 lm/W (single-ended)
14-23 lm/W (double-ended)
2000 hours (single-ended)
3000 hours (double-ended)

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l_inc_stand_gls

General Lighting Service Incandescent Lamps
They are standard tungsten lamps, available with various types of bulbs (clear, frosted, opal, coloured, etc.). A large majority are opal lamps, in the range 25 to 100 watts, with either screw caps or bayonet caps. Some of them are decorative, having specific shapes such as candle lamps, or small caps.

Performance: They are very inefficient, with an efficacy typically around 12 lm/W, generally have a relatively short life around 1000 hours, but have a low initial cost.
Applications: With recent advances in compact fluorescent and tungsten halogen lamps, the continued use of standard incandescent lamps is difficult to justify.
Power:
Colour Temp.:
CRI:
Luminous Eff.:
Lifetime: 15-1000 Watt
2700 Kelvin
100
11-19 lm/W
1000 hours

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l_glossary

Colour Rendering Index (CRI): ranging from 0 to 100, it indicates how perceived colours match actual colours. The higher the colour rendering index, the less colour shift or distortion occurs.
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Colour Temperature of a source: expresses its colour appearance. The higher the temperature, the cooler appears the light source. Colour temperatures of 4000 K or higher appear white and cool; colour temperatures of less than 3000 K have a warm colour appearance e.g. incandescent lamps.
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Discharge lamp: lamp in which the light is produced by an electric discharge through a gas, a metal vapour or a mixture of gases and vapours. All discharge lamps have to operate with a ballast in their electric circuit. This is to control the lamp current.
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Fluorescent lamps: they consist of a sealed glass tube, coated on the inside with phosphors and filled with an inert gas and a small quantity of mercury. An electrical discharge within the tube excites the mercury atoms which emit radiation predominantly in the ultra violet. This UV radiation is converted to visible light by the phosphors. Fluorescent lamps are available with different diameters, inert gas fillings and phosphor coatings. The colour properties of a fluorescent lamps are determined by the phosphors used to coat the inside of the tube. A mixture of phosphors is used to produce a white colour appearance, but this can vary in colour temperature depending on the relative proportions of the phosphors in the mixture. The phosphore mixture also determines the colour rendering properties of the lamp. All fluorescent lamps require ballasts to provide appropriate electrical conditions for starting and control of the discharge.
Linear fluorescent lamp (or tube): fluorescent lamp of straight tubular form and bipin electrical connections at either end.
Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL): single-ended fluorescent lamp with a bent discharge tube of small diameter, of around 10-16 mm, to form a very compact unit.
Induction lamp: compact electrodeless fluorescent lamp where the discharge is induced by a high frequency energy flux.
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High pressure mercury lamp (also called MBF): a high intensity discharge lamp in which the light is produced by an electric discharge through a vapour of mercury operating at higher pressure than in fluorescent lamps. Like in fluorescent lamps, the arc tube is filled with argon and a small quantity of mercury. A fluorescent coating on the inside of the outer envelope converts the long wave UV radiation into visible light. When operating the lamp, at first a low pressure arc exists and very little light is produced; but gradually, as the lamp heats up, the mercury vapour pressure rises and a high-pressure arc is formed and more light is emitted. The time taken for the lamp to reach full light output is approximetly 5 minutes.
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High pressure sodium lamp (also called SON): a high intensity discharge lamp in which the light is produced by an electric discharge through a vapour of sodium operating at high pressure.
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Incandescent lamp: a lamp where a filament is heated by an electric current to produce light.

Tungsten standard lamp: an incandescent lamp whose filament is made of tungsten.
Tungsten halogen lamp: same as above except that the lamp contains in addition halogens or halogen compounds.
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Luminous efficacy: is defined as the ratio of visible radiation (or luminous flux) to power input and is given in lumens per watt (lm/W).

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contacts

For information on the GreenLight Programme, contact your National Contact Point (see list below), or:
European Commission, Directorate General Energy & Transport
Unit D1 – Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources & Demand Management
Rue de la Loi 200, B-1049 Brussels
Tel. +32 2 295 2204, Fax. +32 2 296 4254
E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int
For technical information, contact:
European Commission, Joint Research Centre
Environment Institute – TP 450, I-21020 Ispra
Tel +39 0332 78 9688, Fax. +39 0332 78 9992
E-mail: vincent.berrutto@jrc.it
National Contact Points:
Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Italy
The Netherlands
Norway
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom

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news

11-15 December 2000 – Paris (F)
Learn about GreenLight at Elec 2000. Elec is an international exhibition organised every two years in Paris. Elec brings together the supply from all over the world, within the sectors of electricity, automation, climatic engineering and lighting. Elec is an exhibition of products, systems and services associated with these products. Elec is aimed at all professionals within the sectors of energy, electricity, industry and building industry.
1-4 November 2000 – Lisbon (P)
Luis Silva, Head of the Marketing Department at the Centro para a Conservação de Energia (CCE) presented GreenLight during the UIE2000 Conference “Electricity for a Sustainable Urban Development”. This conference was jointly organised by the International Union of Electricity Applications (UIE) and Electricidade de Portugal. It was mainly concerned with the role of electricity in the development of cities in the 21st century, towards an energy efficient and environmentally sustainable economy.
October 2000 – Germany
The October issue of Contracting & Waermedienst features a comprehensive description of the GreenLight Programme (contact person: Klaus Peter Kirsch, Saarländische Energie-Agentur GmbH).
27 October 2000 – Madrid (E)
Potential Spanish GreenLight Partners and Endorsers were invited to attend the presentation of GreenLight at the International Exhibition of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (MATELEC – Madrid – Room B at 12:00 a.m). This presentation was co-organised by IDAE and the Comite Español de Iluminación (CEI). Contact: fgmozos@idae.es
11-12 Sept. 2000 – Paris (F)
Highlight on GreenLight at the “Journees Nationales de la Lumiere” (National Lighting Conference) in Paris, the biggest French conference on lighting, organised every two years and gathering more than 600 lighting practitioners. Contact person: herve.lefebvre@ademe.fr
13-15 Sept. 2000 – Finland
‘Grönt Ljus för Europa’ is represented at Nordisk Belysningskongress 2000. Contact person: heikki.harkonen@motiva.fi
July 2000 – Finland
In their Xpress Newsletter 3/2000 of July, the Energy Information Centre for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources (MOTIVA) provide their readers with all details about GreenLight. The newsletter is published in Finnish five times per year. It is the source of news on energy conservation.
June 2000 – Italy
The ‘Gestione Energia N.2/2000’ periodical provides its 5000 readers (mostly energy managers) with an article on GreenLight (download text in PDF 194 KB). Contact: derenzio.firemi@iol.it
30-31 May 2000 – Austria
GreenLight is presented and advertised at the Annual Conference of the Austrian Association of Lighting Technology (LTG). Contact person: ritter@eva.ac.at
23-26 May 2000 – Oslo (N)
GreenLight is represented at Eliaden 2000 in Oslo (Norway).
12-13 May 2000 – Spain
In Spain, the
Gaceta de los
Negocios
welcomes the
GreenLight
programme.
11-16 April 2000 – Milan (I)
The GreenLight programme’s materials are displayed on the European Commission’s stand during Euroluce, the 20th International Lighting Exhibition in Milan, Italy.
April 2000 – Austria
The Austrian Energy Agency magazine dedicates a full article untitled “…and let there be GreenLight” in its issue Nr. 1/2000 received by 1500 people.

19-23 March 2000 – Frankfurt (D)
The GreenLight programme formed the centre-piece of the European Commission stand at the “Light + Building 2000” Fair, the new international leading fair for Light and Electrical Technology, Airconditioning and Building Services from 19 to 23 March 2000 in Frankfurt am Main. More than 100.000 visitors and 1,800 exhibitors attended the new event. Among visitors were specialists dealing with the management and technical operation of large-scale properties such as industrial and office buildings, airports, trade fair sites, large hospitals, public authorities and other institutions.”
7 February 2000 – Brussels (B)
GreenLight was officially launched on 7 February 2000 in Brussels during a special event gathering more than 70 participants from the 15 Member States. Among them were representatives from the European National Energy Agencies who are determined to actively promote this innovative programme in each country. Also present were several chief executives from companies at the forefront of pollution prevention in Europe. The launch event was opened by Mr. G. Hanreich, EC Director for New Energies & Demand Management, and Mr. C. Turmes, Member of the European Parliament. Both expressed their enthusiasm and positive views for this promising initiative of the European Commission.

Upcoming Events:
25-26 January 2001 – Staffelstein (D)
Learn about GreenLight in Staffelstein (Germany) during a seminar on Innovative Lighting Technology in Buildings.
23-27 May 2001 – Milan (I)
Special focus on GreenLight at the biennal INTEL 2001 Conference, the International exhibition for electronics, electrical technology and illumination.
11-16 June 2001 – France
First-year assessment of GreenLight
at the eceee 2001 Summer Study
eceee is the European Council for an
Energy-Efficient Economy.
18-20 June 2001 (ISL)
GreenLight success stories presented at the famous LUX EUROPA 2001 conf.
(held every two years; this time in Reykjavík, Iceland)
25 – 27 October 2001 – Helsinki (FIN)
Special GreenLight Event at Light 2001 – Trade fair for lighting professionals. See GreenLight National Contact Point.

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verify

Verifying the energy savings
Options overview – Option A – Option B – Option C – Option D
Overview of Measurement & Verification Options

When firms invest in energy efficiency, their executives naturally want to know how much they have saved and how long their savings will last. The determination of energy savings is a challenge, and requires both accurate measurement and repeatable methodology, known as a measurement and verification protocol.

The Protocol describes here is called the “International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol” (IPMVP). The IPMVP is a document which discusses procedures that, when implemented, allow building owners, energy service companies (ESCOs), and financiers of buildings energy efficiency projects to quantify energy conservation measure (ECM) performance and energy savings. The IPMVP provides an overview of current best practice techniques available for verifying savings from both traditionally- and third-party-financed projects. It has been developped by a worlwide network of corresponding members to incorporate international expertise and to develop consensus among professionals from around the world.

Energy savings are determined by comparing energy use associated with a facility, or certain systems within a facility, before and after the Energy Conservation Measure (ECM). The “before” case is called the baseline model. The “after” case is called the post-installation model. Baseline and post-installation models can be constructed using the methods associated with M&V options A, B, C and D described hereafter.

M&V Option
How Savings Are Calculated
Cost
Option A: Focuses on physical assessment of equipment changes to ensure the installation is to specification. Key performance factors (e.g., lighting wattage) are determined with spot or short-term measurements and operational factors (e.g., lighting operating hours) are stipulated based on analysis of historical data or spot/short-term measurements. Performance factors and proper operation are measured or checked annually. Engineering calculations using spot or short-term measurements, computer simulations, and/or historical data. Dependent on no. of measurement points. Approx. 1-5% of project construction cost.
Option B: Savings are determined after project completion by short-term or continuous measurements taken throughout the term of the contract at the device or system level. Both performance and operations factors are monitored. Engineering calculations using metered data. Dependent on no. and type of systems measured and the term of analysis/metering. Typically 3-10% of project construction cost.
Option C: After project completion, savings are determined at the “whole-building” or facility level using current year and historical utility meter or sub-meter data. Analysis of utility meter (or sub-meter) data using techniques from simple comparison to multivariate (hourly or monthly) regression analysis. Dependent on no. and complexity of parameters in analysis. Typically 1-10% of project construction cost.
Option D: Savings are determined through simulation of facility components and/or the whole facility. Calibrated energy simulation/modeling; calibrated with hourly or monthly utility billing data and/or end-use metering. Dependent on no. and complexity of systems evaluated. Typically 3-10% of project construction cost.

Only section of the protocol relevant to lighting are reproduced here. For more information, the entire protocol can be downloaded at http://www.ipmvp.org/

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funding

Economics
The GreenLight Programme encourages its Partners to tap a large reservoir of profitable investments without the need for specific financial incentives from the Commission. The GreenLight investments use proven technology, products and services which can reduce lighting energy use 30% to 50%, earning rates of return between 20% and 50%.

How to calculate profitability ?
Download Excel calculation spreadsheet (soon)
Financing options you can choose from
List of European Energy Service Companies
Existing financial incentives in Member States
Additional references

How to calculate profitability ?
(with extracts from the EC Joule-Thermie Maxibrochures on energy-efficient lighting)
Improvements in energy efficiency generally have an initial cost which then leads to reduced future energy costs. An existing lighting installation may be providing suitable lighting early in the morning, but remain switched on when daylight provides adequat lighting in the space later in the day. The installation of an automatic control system to turn off the lighting will entail the expenditure of an initial sum of money, but future running costs will be reduced. Is this future saving sufficient to justify the initial expenditure? In order to decide this question, first of all the costs involved must be added together, and then the benefits, in the form of energy savings, evaluated. An assessment of the cost effectiveness of the proposed system can be made in a number of ways.

Costs: They fall into two categories: initial costs and running costs. Initial costs are those incurred in getting the scheme installed and running. They include equipment costs: lamps and luminaires, controls and cables; installation costs: wiring and builders’ work; and commissioning: checking and adjusting controls, testing circuits and measuring illuminances. Running costs often exceed the initial purchase cost of the installation within a short time. They include the energy costs, cleaning, replacement of lamps at the end of their economic life and replacement of any other failed components, e.g. ballasts, prismatic panels, etc.

Benefits: These are usually in the form of reductions in energy costs and in some cases reductions in maintenance and lamp replacement costs. Reduction in the energy used for lighting, and hence heat released into the room, can also reduce the air conditioning load, producing savings in the energy used for air-conditioning and leading to smaller plant requirements. Improvements in lighting can also yield other benefits, such as improved productivity, but these are more difficult to quantify.

Simple payback

This is the simplest method of appraisal. It is usually used where a new proposal is being compared with an existing scheme. If the initial expenditure for the new scheme is x and the annual cost saving is y, then the payback period is x/y years.

Example: consider the replacement of a 60 watt tungsten lamp with an 11 watt compact fluorescent lamp in a room used for 2000 hours per year. The cost of a tungsten lamp is 0.7 Euro, the cost of a compact fluorescent lamp is 19 Euro, electricity costs 0.08 Euro per KWh. The life of a tungsten lamp is 1000 hours, the life of a compact fluorescent lamp is 8000 hours. The tungsten lamp uses 120 kWh per year at an annual cost of 9.6 Euro, the compact fluorescent lamp uses 22 kWh per year at an annual cost of 1.8 Euro. The fluorescent lamp has an initial capital cost 19 Euro, but there are no further capital costs for this system. Two tungsten lamps are required each year at a capital cost of 1.4 Euro. Energy costs per year are 9.6 Euro for the tungsten lamp and 1.8 Euro for the fluorescent lamp. The cost savings using fluorescent lamp are 7.8 Euro for energy and 1.4 Euro for filament lamps that otherwise would have to be bought, a total of 9.2 Euro per year. The simple paybck time of the investment (19/9.2) is therefore just over two years.
However, simple payback is not a good indicator of profitability because it does not consider returns beyond the payback period and ignores the time value of money. Therefore, the GreenLight Partners are advised to choose between two other more powerful indicators: the Net Present Value and the Internal Rate of Return.

Net Present Value

An improvement to the simple payback assessment is to consider the discounted value of the annual savings. Money today is worth more than the same amount of money in the future because it can be invested today to earn interest and produce a greater sum in the future. For example 100 Euro invested today at a real rate of return of 10% per annum will be worth 110 Euro in a year’s time; alternatively 110 Euro in a year’s time is worth 100 Euro today if discounted at 10%. It is possible to calculate what future savings are worth today by discounting them by the rate of return anticipated on an investment. This is a common financial appraisal technique. The discount factor for a single year is calculated from:

Where f = discount factor
R = discount rate (<1)
m = year considered
For example the factor for the third year at a rate of 10% would be:

The cumulative discount factor (c) over n years is given by:

The present value (PV) of annual savings is given by:

PV = annual savings x c

For example a saving of 50 Euro per year for 10 years discounted at 5% is worth today:

Euro

The net present value (NPV) of an investment is the present value of the income or savings less the initial cost of the investment (calculated over its lifetime, i.e. 15 years in GreenLight). A cost effective investment is one where the NPV is positive, ie the savings are worth more than the initial investment.

Internal Rate of Return

The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the interest rate that equates the present value of expected future cash flows to the initial cost of the project. Expressed as a percentage, IRR can be easily compared with loan rates to determine an investment’s profitability. The higher the IRR, the more cost-effective the investment.

The GreenLight commitment defines a profitable investment as one that provides an annualised IRR equivalent of at least 20% over a 15-year period.

Financing options you can choose from
(with extracts from the EC Guide to Energy Efficiency Bankable Proposals)
The basic financing methods for the energy-efficiency lighting upgrades fall into three categories:

Self-financing
Debt-financing
Third party-financing by Energy Service Companies (ESCOs)
Self-financing
The simplest and most important source of finance is shareholders’ equity, raised either by stock issues or retained earnings. Advantages: all cost savings realised from the upgrade are immediately available and the equipment depreciation becomes a tax deduction.

Debt-financing

The next most important source of finance is debt. Debtholders are entitled a fixed regular payment of interest and the final repayment of the principal. It is important to note that tax authorities treat interest payments as a cost. This means the company can deduct interest when calculating its taxable income. Interest is paid from pretax income. Dividends and retained earnings come from after-tax income.

Third party-financing by Energy Service Companies

The basic role of the Energy Service Company (ESCO) is to provide comprehensive energy efficiency services to consumers including project finance, engineering, project management, equipment maintenance monitoring and evaluation, usually through Energy Performance Contracts (EPC). ESCOs can package their services using a variety of finance schemes whereby they finance up-front capital improvements in the client’s premises in exchange for a portion (or the total, depending on the EPC) of the savings generated.

The ESCOs are in effect able to turn the cost savings from efficiency measures into a revenue stream which can be used to repay debt and provide a profit. That’s why performance contracts are sometimes referred as “paid from savings” contracts.

They may constitute the preferred financing option if your organisation wants to keep the upgrade project off its balance sheet. This type of contracting can be complex, but it is emerging in Europe.

See list of European Energy Service Companies (ESC